When Did the One Child Law End in China

When Did the One Child Law End in China

According to a 2005 report by Australian Broadcasting Corporation correspondent John Taylor, China banned the use of physical force to subject a woman to abortion or sterilization in 2002, but is ineffectively enforcing the measure. [143] In 2012, Feng Jianmei, a villager from Shaanxi province, was forced to have an abortion by local authorities after her family refused to pay the fine for a second child. Chinese authorities have since apologized and two officials have been fired, while five others have been sanctioned. [144] The one-child policy was a rule introduced by the Chinese government that stated that the vast majority of couples in the country could only have one child. The aim was to alleviate the social, economic and environmental problems associated with the country`s rapidly growing population. The rule was introduced in 1979 and expires in 2015. Under the directive, women had to have a contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) surgically installed after the birth of a first child and sterilized by tubal ligation after the birth of a second child. From 1980 to 2014, 324 million Chinese women were treated with IUDs in this way and 108 million were sterilized. Women who reject these procedures – which many don`t like – could lose their jobs in government, and their children could lose access to education or health services, and all privileges revoked.

The IUDs installed in this way were modified in such a way that they could not be removed manually, but only surgically. As of January 1, 2016, all Chinese couples will be allowed to have two children. This marks the end of China`s one-child policy, which has limited the majority of Chinese families to a single child over the past 35 years. The process to end the one-child policy has been three-stage over the past three years. It all started in March 2013 when China merged the National Commission for Population and Family Planning with the Ministry of Health to create a new National Commission for Health and Family Planning. Eight months later, in November 2013, China announced a partial relaxation of policies that allowed couples to have two children if one parent is an only child. Surprisingly, of the more than 11 million couples entitled to a second child under the new program, only 1.69 million had applied as of August 2015, or 15.4 percent of those couples. The third and final stage took place in October 2015 to allow all couples to have two children in 2016. The one-child policy was originally conceived as a “one-generation policy”. [35] It was applied at the provincial level and its application varied; Some provinces had looser restrictions. The one-child limit is most strictly enforced in densely populated urban areas.

[36] When this policy was introduced, 6.1 million families who had already given birth received One Child honorary certificates. It was a promise they had to make to make sure they didn`t have more children. [37] The government`s justification for abandoning the one-child policy “in order to improve the balanced development of the population” highlights gender discrimination and the resulting gender imbalance. Yet many Chinese, especially women, remain bitter about the state`s treatment of families and its refusal to apologize for the one-child policy. Abolition may not bring significant benefits, as the CBC analysis has shown: “However, the repeal of the one-child policy cannot trigger a major baby boom, in part because it is believed that birth rates will decline even without the policy. The previous relaxation of the one-child policy resulted in fewer births than expected, and many of China`s younger generations consider smaller family sizes ideal. [30] The CNN reporter adds that China`s new prosperity is also a factor in the declining birth rate:[76] “Couples naturally choose to have fewer children as they leave the fields for the cities, become more educated, and women pursue careers outside the home.” [79] Medical staff massage babies at an infant care center in Yongquan, Chongqing County, southwest China, December 15, 2016. China registered 1 million more births in 2016 than in 2015, after the end of the one-child policy. AFP via Getty Images Hide caption China announces end of controversial one-child policy Following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, a new exemption from regulations for parents who lost children in the earthquake was announced in Sichuan. [46] [47] Similar exceptions had already been made for parents of severely disabled or deceased children.

[48] People also tried to circumvent the policy by giving birth to a second child in Hong Kong, but at least for Guangdong residents, the one-child policy was also applied when the birth was given in Hong Kong or abroad. [49] “It`s a good thing, and I`m very supportive,” he said. “I want to have a second child in two years. But of course, it`s not cheap to raise children. China`s one-child policy was implemented to reduce overpopulation, which strained the country`s food supply and natural and economic resources after its industrialization in the 1950s. According to a U.S. Embassy report, research published by Chinese scientists and their presentations at the Beijing Conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population in October 1997 seemed to suggest that market-based incentives or increased voluntariness are not morally better, but ultimately more effective. [133] In 1988, Zeng Yi and Professor T.

Paul Schultz of Yale University discussed the impact of market transformation on Chinese fertility, arguing that the introduction of the contract liability system in agriculture in the early 1980s weakened family planning controls during this period. [134] Zeng claimed that the “big pot” system of popular communes had insulated people from the cost of many children. By the late 1980s, the economic costs and incentives created by the contractual system were already reducing the number of children sought by farmers. A mother and grandmother care for a child in Beijing on January 1, 2016. Married couples in China were allowed to have two children in 2016 after concerns about an aging population and shrinking workforce ended the country`s controversial one-child policy. Fred Dufour / AFP via Getty Images Hide caption Although China`s birth rate fell faster in the 1970s under these restrictions than anywhere else in the world, the Chinese government felt fertility was still too high, influenced by the global debate over a possible overpopulation crisis proposed by organizations such as the Club of Rome and the Sierra Club.